An Update on the Kiersma Chen Empathy Scale (KCES): Creating the KCES-Revised
Aronson BD, Chen AMH*, Blakely M, Kiersma ME, Wicker E. An update on the Kiersma Chen Empathy Scale (KCES): Creating the KCES-R. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education. 2021; Online ahead of print. doi: https://doi.org/10.5688/ajpe8685
Objective. This study aimed to provide further validity evidence for the KCES by analyzing data collected from multiple administrations of the KCES along with cognitive interviews of students in pharmacy and nursing programs to identify revisions of the Kiersma-Chen Empathy Scale: The KCES– Revised (KCES-R).
Methods. De-identified data from previous KCES administrations were used for scale evaluation. Response process validity evidence was enhanced through cognitive interviews with 20 pre-pharmacy/pharmacy students at Cedarville University. After survey revisions, the cognitive interview process was repeated with 10 University of Wyoming nursing students.
Results. Based on psychometric data and cognitive interviews, the KCES was revised as follows: (1) key components of cognitive and affective empathy were retained, (2) scaling was changed to reflect necessity and empathy ability, (3) negatively-worded items were removed, and (4) instrument was changed to two parallel subscales.
Conclusion. This study used data from thousands of geographically and professionally diverse samples. Based on potential problems identified in quantitative analyses, cognitive interviews with nursing and pharmacy students were conducted, and modifications to the KCES were made. Further psychometric validation is needed regarding the KCES-R.