Over the past decades, opportunities for pharmacists to be actively involved in screening, education and referral for patients have grown. As these opportunities have increased, so too has the importance of being knowledgeable about the corresponding recommendations and guidelines. At times, various expert organizations may publish contradicting guidelines for a particular disease state or preventive medicine recommendation. This article focuses on the general background and history of two such expert groups, the American Cancer Society and the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force, and compares the two entities’ recommendations for breast and prostate cancer as of April 2017. It is critical for pharmacists and pharmacy students to understand these differences as well as their underlying rationales so as to better advise their patients.