Diabetes is an endocrine disease caused by deficiency or malfunction of insulin that results in high blood glucose levels and places patients at higher risk for a number of complications. This chronic disease is difficult to manage and affects millions of people in the United States, costing the health care system billions of dollars a year. Of a variety of antidiabetic agents used to control blood glucose, insulin is perhaps the most effective, but until recently it was only available in injectable form. As of June 27, 2014, a new inhaled insulin called Afrezza® (Technosphere® insulin) was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and will soon be coming to market. This rapid-acting insulin is administered through the lungs and offers an alternative to traditional dosage forms. This article further explores some background about Technosphere® insulin, its mechanism of action and literature regarding its efficacy.