Approximately 80 percent of career patients experience breakthrough pain (BTP) characterized by acute onset, short duration, and moderate-to-severe intensity. Treatment of BTP using current available medications is often insufficient, leading to the development of various novel approaches that focus on rapid onset of action and short duration of action. Most of these products are still in clinical trials, and future studies are needed to compare the novel approaches to currently available treatments. Non-medication related issues, which arise from a lack of communication and understanding between the patient, physician and pharmacist, are also barriers to adequate BTP management. By educating patients and working with physicians, pharmacists can play a major role in effectively managing cancer-related BTP.