Artificial sweeteners have become a central component of the Western diet in order to facilitate weight loss and enhance glucose control. Despite their popularity, evidence supporting the benefits of artificial sweeteners remains contradictory; different trials have shown weight loss, weight gain or no change with artificial sweetener consumption. Multiple trials have correlated artificial sweetener usage, in the form of diet soda, with an increased risk of obesity, diabetes and/or metabolic syndrome. Hypotheses speculate that individuals who consume larger loads of artificial sweeteners may be more likely to make unhealthy lifestyle choices, putting them at an increased risk for the development of these disease states. Although the link between artificial sweeteners and developing obesity or diabetes remains unclear, it is important for the general public and health care professionals to be aware of this potential relationship in order to make educated decisions about the foods and beverages they consume.