Title

A review of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in the non-HIV infected population

Document Type

Article

Publication Date

2016

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

10.1177/1060028016650107.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Summarize data on the pathophysiology, treatment, and prevention options for non-AIDS immunocompromised patients who have Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP); review the epidemiology of patients presenting with PJP; and discuss the first and second-line pharmacological options for treatment and prophylaxis of PJP in this population.

DATA SOURCES:

MEDLINE (1989-February 2016) searched. Terms searched included combinations of Pneumocystis jirovecii, Pneumocystis carinii, non-HIV, infected, patients, prevention, prophylaxis, Bactrim, treatment, AIDS, opportunistic, immunocompromised, cancer, and pathophysiology

STUDY SELECTION AND DATA EXTRACTION:

Articles included had the most relevant information on PJP pathophysiology, and first-/second-line treatment and prophylactic options. Inclusion criteria were met and evaluated with 43 sources.

DATA SYNTHESIS:

P jirovecii has a complicated life-cycle; it seeks to find compromised immune systems in order to replicate, causing life-threatening complications. With immunosuppressive medications coming to market for immunomodulating diseases, PJP has become a prevalent opportunistic infection in the non-HIV population. CD4+ lymphocyte count <200 cells/µL is the primary risk factor for PJP presentation in these patients. With data from clinical trials, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) has become the primary treatment and prophylaxis of PJP in the non-HIV population, although second-line options are available.

CONCLUSION:

PJP is a health problem that may result in an increased concern as more immunomodulating medications to treat various disease states are developed. Patients on these drugs or those with immunosuppressive diseases should have their CD4+ count monitored. Health care providers should continue to use TMP/SMX as the primary option in non-HIV, immunocompromised patients for treatment and prophylaxis of PJP.

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