Menopause occurs as a result of decreased natural estrogen production by the body. A variety of short-term and long-term symptoms can occur during menopause, which may significantly impact a woman's daily life. Hormone therapy (HT) is commonly employed to alleviate these unwanted symptoms and to regain balance of hormone levels. Options include estrogen-only or estrogen-progestin combination therapy. While HT may help relieve symptoms such as cognitive decline caused by menopause, it also carries potential side effects. Although HT has shown a potential benefit in women with Alzheimer's disease (AD), overall outcomes measuring cognitive function improvement are inconclusive. Therefore, HT should not be initiated solely to improve cognition until further research is completed to support this indication. HT, however, is still an effective means to treat several other post-menopausal symptoms. It is imperative for pharmacists and physicians to stay updated on current research to appropriately assess the risks and benefits of HT treatment on an individual patient basis.